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Lundi 25 juil 2016

Autonomous cruise control system

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Schematic of Intelligent Cruise Control. The red car automatically follows the blue car.

External video

Adaptive Cruise Control Audi example video.

Autonomous cruise control (ACC; also called adaptive cruise control or radar cruise control) is an optional cruise control system for road vehicles that automatically adjusts the vehicle speed to maintain a safe distance from vehicles ahead. It makes no use of satellite or roadside infrastructures nor of any cooperative support from other vehicles. Hence control is imposed based on sensor information from on-board sensors only. Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) further extends the automation of navigation by using information gathered from fixed infrastructure such as satellites and roadside beacons, or mobile infrastructure such as reflectors or transmitters on the back of other vehicles.[citation needed]
Such systems go under many different trade names according to the manufacturer. These systems use either a radar or laser sensor setup allowing the vehicle to slow when approaching another vehicle ahead and accelerate again to the preset speed when traffic allows. ACC technology is widely regarded as a key component of any future generations of intelligent cars. The impact is equally on driver safety as on economising capacity of roads by adjusting the distance between vehicles according to the conditions.


1 Types

1.1 Assisting systems
1.2 Multi-sensor systems
1.3 Cooperative systems

2 Timeline
3 Vehicle models supporting adaptive cruise control
4 See also
5 References
6 External links


The Jeep adaptive cruise control radar sensor located in the center of the lower grill

Autonomous cruise control on VW Golf

Laser-based systems and radar-based systems compete in quality and price.
Laser-based ACC systems do not detect and track vehicles in adverse weather conditions nor do they reliably track extremely dirty (non-reflective) vehicles. Laser-based sensors must be exposed, the sensor (a fairly large black box) is typically found in the lower grille offset to one side of the vehicle.
Radar-based sensors can be hidden behind plastic fascias; however, the fascias may look different from a vehicle without the feature. For example, Mercedes packages the radar behind the upper grille in the center, and behind a solid plastic panel that has painted slats to simulate the look of the rest of the grille.
Single radar systems are the most common. Systems involving multiple sensors use either two similar hardware sensors like the 2010 Audi A8[1] or the 2010 Volkswagen Touareg,[2] or one central long range radar coupled with two short radar sensors placed on the corners of the vehicle like the BMW 5 and 6 series.[3]
Assisting systems[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2013)

Radar-based ACC often feature a precrash system, which warns the driver and/or provides brake support if there is a high risk of a collision. Also in certain cars it is incorporated with a lane maintaining system which provides power steering assist to reduce steering input burden in corners when the cruise control system is activated.
Multi-sensor systems[edit]
GPS-aided ACC: the GPS navigation system provides guidance input to the ACC. On the motorway, the car in the front is slowing down, but with turn signal on and it is actually heading for a highway off-ramp. A conventional ACC would sense the car in front was decelerating and it would simply apply brakes accordingly. But with GPS-guided ACC takes into account the approaching highway exit and it simultaneously receives images from a camera attached e.g. behind the front pane to the rearview mirror. The camera may detect the turn signal from the car ahead. So instead of braking, this new system continues uninterrupted, because it knows that the car in front will exit the lane[4]
Cooperative systems[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2013)

The next generation, also known as the Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control, will include information served from a vehicle ahead in the same lane. Such dependant approach however requires standardization across manufacturers and model generations. There is no vision when such agreement could come into practice. All designs without such cooperative support will operate with comparably lower dynamic, but promise better reliability and independent operation.
The cooperative approach is the better advances concept to improve road capacity. Therefore, reach of detection must exceed the capabilities of on-board laser or radar. A wireless communication between vehicles in a queue may not aid braking, but can be used for adjusting speed to avoid longitudinal oscillations.

Distronic Plus display on Mercedes-Benz S-Class (W221)

ACC radar antenna

1992: Mitsubishi was the first automaker to offer a Lidar-based distance detection system on the Japanese market Debonair. Marketed as Distance Warning, this early system only warned the driver, without influencing throttle, brakes or gearshifting.[5][6]
1995: Mitsubishi Diamante introduced laser Preview Distance Control. This early system only controlled speed through throttle control and downshifting, but did not apply the brakes.[5]
1997: Toyota began to offer a « laser adaptive cruise control » (lidar) system on the Japanese market Celsior.[7] It only controlled speed through throttle control and downshifting, but did not apply the brakes.
1999: Mercedes introduced Distronic, the first worldwide radar-assisted ACC[citation needed], on the Mercedes-Benz S-Class (W220).[8][9] and the CL-Class.[10]
1999: Jaguar began offering a radar-based Adaptive Cruise Control system on the Jaguar XK (X100)[11]
1999: Nissan introduced laser (lidar) Adaptive Cruise Control on Japanese market Nissan Cima.[12]
2000: BMW introduced radar Active Cruise Control in Europe on the BMW 7 Series (E38)
2000: The Lexus division was the first to bring laser adaptive cruise control to the US market in late 2000 with the LS 430′s Dynamic Laser Cruise Control system.[13]
2000: Toyota further refined their laser ACC system by adding « brake control », that also applied brakes[7]
2001: Infiniti introduces laser Intelligent Cruise Control on 2002 Infiniti Q45#Third generation F50.
2001: Renault introduced Adaptive Cruise Control on the Renault Vel Satis[14] (supplied by Bosch[15])
2002: Lancia introduced radar adaptive cruise control (by Bosch) on the Lancia Thesis[16]
2002: Volkswagen introduced radar Adaptive cruise control on the Volkswagen Phaeton in first half of 2002, manufactured by Autocruise (now TRW).
2002: Audi introduced radar Adaptive cruise control (Autocruise) on the Audi A8 in late 2002
2003: Cadillac introduced radar adaptive cruise control (ACC) on the Cadillac XLR[17]
2003: Toyota shifted from laser (lidar) to radar ACC technology: October 2003 radar ACC on the Celsior.[7] The first Lexus Dynamic Radar Cruise Control and a radar-guided pre-collision system on the Lexus LS(XF30) US market facelift.[18]
2004: Toyota added « low-speed tracking mode » to the radar ACC on the Crown Majesta.[7] The low-speed speed tracking mode was a second mode that would warn the driver if the car ahead stopped and provide braking; it could stop the car but then deactivated.[19]
2005: In the United States, Acura first introduced radar Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) integrated with a Collision avoidance system (Collision Mitigation Braking System (CMBS)) in the late calendar year 2005 in the model year 2006 Acura RL as an optional feature.[20]
2005: Mercedes-Benz S-Class (W221) refined the Distronic system to completely halt the car if necessary (now called « Distronic Plus ». Now offered on E-Class and most Mercedes sedans. In an episode of Top Gear, Jeremy Clarkson[citation needed] demonstrated the effectiveness of the cruise control system in the S-class by coming to a complete halt from motorway speeds to a round-about and getting out, without touching the pedals.
2006: Audi introduced Full speed range ACC plus on the Audi Q7. It has low-speed mode, and additional functions to warn the driver of a potential collision, and prepare emergency braking as needed.[21] The system supplied by Bosch is also available in the 2008 Audi A8, the Audi Q5, 2009 Audi A6 and the new 2010 Audi A8. The Audi A4 is available with an older version of the ACC that does not stop the car completely.
2006: Nissan introduced Intelligent Cruise Control with DISTANCE CONTROL ASSIST on Nissan Fuga.[22] It pushes the gas pedal against the foot when the DVD navigation with GPS determines that an unsafe speed is being maintained. If the Autonomous cruise control system is being used, the Distance Control Assistance will reduce speed automatically, and will warn the driver that an adjustment is being made with an audible bell sound.
2006: September 2006 Toyota introduced its « all-speed tracking function » for the Lexus LS 460.[7] This radar-assisted system maintains continuous control from speeds of 0 km/h to 100 km/h and is designed to work under repeated starting and stopping situations such as highway traffic congestion.[23]
2007: BMW introduced full-speed Active Cruise Control Stop-and-Go on the BMW 5 Series (E60).[24]
2008: Lincoln introduced radar adaptive cruise control on the 2009 Lincoln MKS.
2008: SsangYong Motor Company introduced radar Active Cruise Control on the SsangYong Chairman[25]
2009: Hyundai introduces radar Adaptive cruise control on Hyundai Equus in Korean market.
2009: ACC and CMBS also became available as optional features in the model year the 2010 Acura MDX[26][not in citation given] Mid Model Change (MMC) and the newly introduced model year 2010 Acura ZDX.[27]
2010: Audi world first GPS-guided radar ACC on Audi A8#D4[4]
2010: Jeep introduces Adaptive Cruise Control on the 2011 Jeep Grand Cherokee[28]
2013: Mercedes introduced DISTRONIC PLUS with Steering Assist (traffic jam assist) on the Mercedes-Benz S-Class (W222)[29]
2013: BMW introduced Active Cruise Control with Traffic Jam Assistant[30]
2014: Chrysler introduces full speed range radar Adaptive Cruise Control with Stop+ on the 2015 Chrysler 200.
2015: Ford introduces first pickup truck with Adaptive Cruise Control on the 2015 Ford F150

Vehicle models supporting adaptive cruise control[edit]
There are three main categories of ACC.

Vehicles with Full Speed Range 0MPH adaptive cruise control are able to bring the car to a full stop to 0 mph & need to be re-activated to continue moving with something like a tap of the gas pedal.
Vehicles with Traffic Jam Assist / Stop & Go (there isn’t yet a good industry phrase as they are all proprietary) will auto resume from standstill to creep with stop & go traffic.
Vehicles with Partial cruise control cuts off & turns off below a set minimum speed, requiring driver intervention.

Full speed range ACC
Partial cruise control



Any Vehicle 1990+ [31]
Uses OpenCV, Wikispeedia, no braking.
Motor Authority Review [32]

2014 RLX, 2014 MDX, 2015 TLX, RDX

2005 RL, MDX, ZDX, 2016 MDX is 0 mph type, 2016 ILX[33]

A8, A7 (2010+), A6 (2011+); Q7 (2007+), A3 (2013+), Q5 (2013+)
Adaptive Cruise Control with Stop & Go
A3, A4 (see a demonstration on YouTube), A5, Q5, A6, A8 (also uses data from navigation and front camera sensors),[34] Q7

Continental GT (2009+)
Follow-to-Stop option

2007 5-series, 2011+ X5[35] excl Diesel, 2013 3-series, i3
Active Cruise Control with Stop & Go
2000 7, 5, 6, 3
(only as an option together with big engines, Stop & Go Variant available on 3, 5, 6 and 7 models) (Active Cruise Control)

XTS, ATS, SRX (2013+), ELR, Escalade (2015+ Premium trim)
Also includes full power automatic braking under 20 mph
2004 XLR, 2005 STS, 2006 DTS (shuts off below 25 mph)

Impala (2014+)
Availability: Early Spring 2013

200c (2015+)
Active Cruise Control with Stop & Go.[36]
2007 300C
laser, for a limited time, now uses a Bosch radar-based system


2011 Charger, 2011 Durango
radar, by Bosch


2015+ F150 [37] 2011+Explorer, 2006 Mondeo, 2013 Kuga, 2013+ Fusion, S-Max, Galaxy, 2010+ Taurus, 2011+ Edge
Disables and does not work or brake under 20 mph; – Radar[38] Adaptive Cruise Control and Collision Warning with Brake Support

Civic (2016+)
Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) with Low-Speed Follow
2003 Inspire, 2005 Legend, 2013 Accord (USA), 2007 CR-V series III, 2015 Honda CRV, 2016 Honda Pilot [39]
Adaptive Cruise Control and Collision Mitigating Braking System with Honda Sensing [40]

Equus (2012+), Genesis (2015+), Sonata (2015+)
Edmunds review[41]
Genesis (2012+)
Edmunds review[42]

EX (2010+)
older, laser based system
2006 EX, M, Q45, QX56, G35, FX35/45/50, G37
shuts off below 3 mph, EX: in North America as an option, shuts off below 40 km/h


1999 XK-R, S-Type, XJ, XF

Cherokee (Limited and TrailHawk Models), Grand Cherokee Stop & Go

2011 Grand Cherokee, Grand Cherokee (2014+) – 20+ mph (Option on Limited & Overland, standard on Summit)[43]
radar, by Bosch

Cadenza (2014+), Sedona (2015+), K900 (2015+)

Land Rover
Range Rover (2013+)

Range Rover Sport


Disables and does not work or brake under 20 mph
2009+ MKS, 2010+ MKT, 2011+ MKX, 2013+ MKZ, 2015+ MKC
Radar[38] Adaptive Cruise Control and Collision Warning with Brake Support

2006 LS 460, 2013 GS hybrid
Dynamic Radar Cruise Control
LS 460 full ACC not available in US
2000 LS430/460 (laser and radar), RX (laser and radar), GS, IS, ES 350, and LX 570 (shuts off below 30 mph)


2014 Mazda6, Mazda3, 2016 CX-5
Radar Cruise Control and Forward Obstruction Warning[44]

Outlander (2014+)

2006 S, B, E, CLS, CL (2009+); A, CLA, M, G, GL (2013+)
Distronic Plus
1998 S, E, CLS, SL, CL, M, GL, CLK, 2012 C

Murano (2015+), Maxima (2016+)

1998 Cima, Primera T-Spec Models
Intelligent Cruise Control

Panamera (2010+); Cayenne (2011+), Cayman (2013+), Boxster(2012+)
Porsche Active Safe (PAS), PDK transmission only.


1997 Celsior, 2009 Sienna (XLE Limited Edition), Avalon, Sequoia (Platinum Edition), Avensis, 2009 Corolla (Japan),[45] 2010 Prius
Dynamic Laser Cruise Control (DLCC) on 2009+ Sienna XLE Limited, Avalon Limited and Sequoia Platinum shuts off below 25 mph (US)[46]

León (2012+)

Octavia (2013+), Fabia (2014+)

Legacy, Outback (2013+), Forester (2014+), Impreza (2015+), WRX (2016+)
0 mph EyeSight[47][48] Non-Radar Camera System


2015 Vitara, 2016 Sx4 Scross

Model S (2015+)
Traffic-Aware Cruise Control (TACC)[49]

Vauxhall / Opel

Insignia, Zafira Tourer (on selected variants of SE, SRi, Elite, VXR), Astra

Phaeton (2010+), Passat B8 (2014+), Touareg (2011+) Golf Mk7 (2013+), Polo (2014+)
not in US
Passat, Phaeton all generations, Touareg

All Volvo models 2015+
Also before 2015 ACC was available on V40, S60,[50] V60, XC60, V70, XC70 and S80

ACC also includes automatic braking. Newest models feature full power auto-brake with pedestrian and cyclist detection.

See also[edit]

Autonomous car
Intelligent car
IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Society
Lane departure warning system
Precrash system


^ Bloch, Alexander (2010-01-18). « Die Technik-Highlights des neuen Audi A8″ (in German). Retrieved 2011-10-12. 
^ Bloch, Alexander (2011-02-09). « Assistenzsysteme im Test: Sechs Modelle im Sicherheitsvergleich » (in German). Retrieved 2011-10-12. 
^ Bloch, Alexander (2010-01-08). « Abstandsregeltempomaten im Test: Mittelklasse-Autos » (in German). Retrieved 2011-10-12. 
^ a b The new Audi A8 – The sportiest sedan in the luxury class
^ a b Vehicle technologies to improve performance and safety
^ History of Mitsubishi Motors
^ a b c d e « TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION GLOBAL WEBSITE – 75 Years of TOYOTA – Technical Development – Electronics Parts ». Retrieved 6 April 2015. 
^ Mercedes-Benz S-Class, W 220 series (1998 to 2005)
^ « Innovation as a tradition ». November 27, 2014. 
^ Technical highlights of the CL-Class and its predecessor series
^ Jaguar Teams with Delphi to Introduce Adaptive Cruise Control
^ On the Research Front Lines
^ (2000-09-29). « Finally! Adaptive Cruise Control Arrives in the USA ». Retrieved 2011-10-12. 
^ « First drive: Renault gets Vel Satis-faction ». 2002-09-27. Retrieved 2015-01-19. 
^ « Premiere auf dem Automobilsalon in Genf: Renault Vel Satis mit neuer Wischertechnik von Bosch ». Robert Bosch GmbH. 2001-03-09. Retrieved 2015-01-19. 
^ « Launch of top-of-the-range Lancia Thesis is delayed further ». Automotive News Europe. 2011-09-24. Retrieved 2015-01-19. 
^ Delphi’s Adaptive Cruise Control Technology Featured On Cadillac XLR
^ 430: Luxury or ‘ultra luxury’
^ « Intelligent Vehicle Source ( – Low Speed ACC Finally Hits the Market ». Retrieved 2011-10-12. 
^ « 2006 Acura RL - Safety » (Press release). 2005-08-17. Retrieved 2011-10-12. 
^ Distance Control: DCX and VW Offering Adaptive Cruise Control System with a Low-Speed Mode
^ [1][dead link]
^ Interone Worldwide GmbH (2008-06-17). « Active Cruise Control with Stop & Go function on the BMW 5 Series Sedan ». Retrieved 2011-10-12. 
^ SsangYong Motor Moves to Take Lead in Large Sedan Market with ‘Chairman W’ and ‘Chairman H’
^ « Acura Media Newsroom - MDX - Releases ». Retrieved 2011-10-12. 
^ « New 2010 Acura ZDX Four-Door Sports Coupe Delivers Style, Performance, Luxury and Refinement » (Press release). 2009-08-17. Retrieved 2011-10-12. 
^ Chrysler Group LLC (2 June 2010). « All-new 2011 Jeep® Grand Cherokee Earns ‘Top Safety Pick’ From the Insurance… — AUBURN HILLS, Mich., June 2 /PRNewswire/ – ». Retrieved 6 April 2015. 
^ New assistance systems: The helpers in the background
^ ConnectedDrive Intelligent Driving
^ « SPEED LIMIT AWARE CRUISE-CTRL ». Retrieved 2014-10-31. 
^ « An Android App For Cruise Control » Accessed 3 November 2011.
^ « 2016 Acura ILX Owner’s Manual » (PDF). 
^ « The new Audi A8″ (PDF). Retrieved 17 February 2010. 
^ « BMW USA News. » Accessed 6 September 2013.
^ « Chrysler – Build & Price » Accessed 9 September 2014.
^ a b « Ford Media Release:Adaptive Cruise Control and Collision Warning with Brake Support » (PDF). Retrieved July 2012. 
^ « Honda Sensing – Official Site ». Retrieved 10 September 2015. 
^ « 2012 Hyundai Equus Sedan ». Retrieved 2013-12-27. 
^ « 2012 Hyundai Genesis ». Retrieved 2013-12-27. 
^ « 2014 Jeep Grand Cherokee Owners Manual » (PDF). Retrieved 7 April 2013. 
^ « [MAZDA]MRCC – Active Safety Technology ». Retrieved 6 April 2015. 
^ « Toyota Introduces New 10th-Generation Corolla in Japan ». Retrieved 2011-10-12. 
^ « 09 Dynamic Laser Cruise Control Release – Toyota » Accessed 7 September 2013.
^ « 2013 Subaru Legacy and Outback » (PDF). Retrieved 2012-04-06. 
^ « Eyesight Technology ». 
^ « Tesla Firmware 6.1 Update Introduces Traffic-Aware Cruise Control for Autopilot ». Retrieved 2015-01-13. 
^ « Volvo S60 Adaptive Cruise Control ». Retrieved 2011-11-13. 

External links[edit]

Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control: Human Factors Analysis–Federal Highway Administration

Retrieved from «″
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